Instructions for kids 12 months and older. Reviewed by health and safety services experts at the American Red Cross in February 2017.

We might all be in a situation where we have to save a child’s life.

Kids may be in all kinds of hazardous situations.

They choke on food, fall off bicycles and other play toys.

Below given is a step-by-step guide giving the elementary information of first aid for choking and CPR, but you are begged not to totally rely on it as the only source of information. You can attend some classes on infant and child CPR to get to know and practice the right techniques. They vary depending on the child’s age and they must be done in the proper way as they can result harmful otherwise.

Visit the Red Cross website or call (800)733-2767 (800-RED-CROSS) in order to find a class in your area.

The instructions listed below are for kids aged 1-12. In case you want to know what to do when a baby younger than 12 months is choking or needs CPR, you can check the illustrated guide to infant CPR.

Choking

Step1: Act quickly

In case where a child can’t cry, cough or speak it means that something might be blocking her airway and you’ll have to help the child get it out. The child might make strange noises or no sound when opening the mouth, she might have a red or blue skin.

Position without having started the forthcoming compression.

Open the kid’s mouth and mind for any blockage. Don’t put your finger in his mouth if you don’t see a blockage. Otherwise, you may accidentally push the object further inside his throat. When you see anything, take it away with your finger.

When you can’t take away the blockage and the child is still unresponsive provide two rescue breaths in this way :

Lean the kid’s head back with one hand and raise his chin lightly with the other one. This way the airway will open. Squeeze the child’s nose shut, put your mouth over his and exhale in his lungs until his chest rises. Repeat the cycle of 30 compressions. When you don’t see the chest rise, check for the object and provide two rescue breaths until it is taken away and the kid begins to breathe on his own or help is provided.

When she`s coughing or gagging, it shows that her airway is just partially blocked. In that case, leave the child keep coughing. It is the best effective way to dislodge a blockage.

When the child can not cough up the object, you better ask someone to call 911 or the local emergency number after you start back blows and abdominal thrusts ( see step 2 below).

In that case, when you are alone with the child, you give two minutes of care, then call 911.

But if you have any doubts that the child`s airway is closed due to the fact that the throat has swollen shut, you must call 911 right away.

In the cases when the child is at risk of a heart attack problems or you saw the child fall to the ground call 911 immediately.

Step 2: Try dislodging the item with back blows and abdominal thrusts.

At first, do back blows.

When a child is aware but she isn`t able to cough, speak, or breathe and is beginning to be blue kneel slightly behind the child. Put one arm diagonally across his chest and lean him forward to ensure support.

Then firmly hit the kid in between the shoulder blades with the heel of the other hand.

Each of the blows has to be a parted and clear effort to dislodge the obstruction.

Give five of these back blows.

After that do abdominal thrusts.

Put one foot in front of the other, or kneel behind the child and keep your arms wrapped around the waist.

Find the child`s belly button using one or two fingers. Make a fist and put the side of the thumb against the middle of the kid`s abdomen right after the navel and just below the lower tip of the breastbone.

Grab the fist with the other hand and provide five quick upward blows into the abdomen. Each of them must be a parted and clear attempt to dislodge the obstruction.

Echo the back blows and abdominal thrusts.

Keep alternating five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until the object is out or the child begins coughing forcefully, talk, cry, breathe or becomes unresponsive.

When the child is unresponsive

When the child who is choking becomes unresponsive, you will have to do a modified method of CPR:

Put the child on his back on a stable, flat surface. Kneel next to his upper chest. Put the heel of one hand on his breast bone, in the middle of his chest. Put the other hand right on top of the first hand. Strive in keeping your fingers off the chest and keep them upward.

Do 30 compressions by pushing the kid`s breastbone down approximately 2 inches. Have the chest return to its normal position without having started the forthcoming compression.

Open the kid`s mouth and mind for any blockage. Don`t put your finger in his mouth if you don`t see a blockage. Otherwise, you may accidentally push the object further inside his throat. If you see anything, take it away using your finger.

If you can`t take away the blockage and the child is still unresponsive provide two rescue breaths, in this way:

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Lean the kid`s head with one hand and raise his chin slightly with the other one. This way the airway will open. Squeeze the child`s nose shut, put your mouth over his and exhale in his lungs until you see his chest rise. Repeat the cycle of 30 compressions in case you don`t see the chest rise, check for the object and provide two rescue breaths until it is taken away and the kid begins to breathe on his own or help is provided.

Have your child checked by medical personnel right after the incident.

How to administer CPR?

CPR means cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is a measure that saves the life of a person who doesn’t show signs of life, i.e. he is unconscious and unable to breathe.

When performing CPR one makes use of chest compressions and rescue breaths in order to have oxygen-rich blood circulate through the brain and other vital organs until the child revives or healthcare provider arrives. This helps stop brain damage-which occurs in a matter of minutes-and even death. In the case when you haven’t attended CPR courses, you can only try to do chest compressions.

Apply these steps :

Step 1 : Examine the child’s situation

Touch the child’s shoulder and call her on the name when she doesn’t answer, call 911 or the local emergency number. (When you are alone with your child, provide 2 minute of care as given below, and afterwards call 911 by yourself.)

Put the child on her back on a stable, flat surface, kneel next to the child.

Firstly, ensure she is not severely bleeding and if yes apply pressure to the area. Don’t perform CPR until the bleeding has stopped.

Step 2: Provide 30 chest compressions put the heel of one hand in the centre of the child’s chest and put the other hand on top. Keep your fingers up off her chest by interlacing or keeping them upward. Place your body in such a way so that your shoulders are right over your hands. Put your arms straight, push down about 2 inches and allow the chest to go back to its normal position.

Push hard and push fast.

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Compressions must be light, not rough.

Apply 30 chest compressions at the rate of two per second.

Meanwhile, count loudly “One and two and three and ..,” pushing down while saying the number and coming up while you say β€˜β€™and’’ (The song Staying Alive has the rhythm you are searching for)

Keep giving compressions until:

-You see any sign of life.
-An AED (automated external defibrillator) is to be used.
-You have administered nearly 2 minutes of CPR and another person can proceed after you.
-You have administered nearly 2 minutes of CPR, you are alone with the child, and you have to call 911 or the emergency number.
-EMS personnel arrives.
-You feel too tired to proceed.
-The situation seems unsafe.

When help arrives and the child seems to be okay, a doctor must check to be sure that the child’s airway is totally clear and she hasn’t got any internal problems.

We’ve also included a video from”this morning” show with Dr Ranj goes through the simple steps and actions that could save the life of a choking child or adult.